Dyscalculia, in broad terms, is a life-long learning disability pertaining to numbers and arithmetic skills. It is sometimes confused with math anxiety, which has a different pathology, but which often presents in similar ways. This article deals mostly with ‘developmental dyscalculia’, which is distinguishable from ‘acquired dyscalculia’ in that the latter is as a result of stroke or brain injury.

## Definition

Diagnostics and comprehensive definitions of dyscalculia are still somewhat confusing. Apparently the term was first used in an advertisement in the New York Times, 1968, but Czech researcher Kosc is generally credited for coining ‘developmental dyscalculia’ in 1974. He noted it as “…clearly (distinguishable) from other forms of disturbed mathematical abilities”.

Sometimes called ‘math dyslexia’, the British Dyslexia Association characterizes dyscalculia as the ‘inability to learn basic arithmetic facts, process numerical magnitude, and perform accurate and fluent calculations’. The ‘numerical magnitude’ of an object is its non-verbal numerical representation. Dirt, for instance, doesn’t have numerical magnitude, as one cannot quantify ‘two dirts’.

According to Schulte-Körne, the DSM-IV and V classify dyscalculia as a ‘mathematics disorder’ or learning disorder, with impairment in four sub skills – number sense, memorization of arithmetic facts, accurate or fluent calculation, and accurate math reasoning.

Dyscalculia is not usually associated with low intelligence. This means that an individual (child or adult) who is otherwise intelligent or competent in other learning areas, truly battles with numbers, mathematics and arithmetic. Also, there appears to be a large overlap with other learning disabilities or impairments, which makes dyscalculia a difficult disorder to diagnose.

## Classification of Symptoms

Kosc identified six different classifications for the disorder, where students present with problems and difficulties in the following areas:

- Verbal dyscalculia –
*naming*specific amounts, e.g. ‘three oranges’. Later research calls it a lack of number sense, or difficulty in understanding quantity. - Practognostic dyscalculia –
*manipulating*objects mathematically, e.g. making comparisons to determine which is smaller or larger, less or more etc. - Ideognostical dyscalculia –
*understanding*mathematical and arithmetic concepts and relationships. - Lexical dyscalculia –
*reading*mathematical symbols, such as operational signs (+, -, <, > etc) and numbers. - Graphical dyscalculia –
*writing*mathematical symbols such as operational signs (+, -, <, > etc) and numbers. - Operational dyscalculia –
*performing*arithmetic and mathematical calculations.

Though these findings were not independently verified, Kosc’s classifications nevertheless offer a good basis for understanding the general symptoms of dyscalculia . For the purpose of further clarification, following is a list of general or readily observable symptoms and manifestations of the disorder.

## Other and Associated Symptoms

According to the British Dyslexia Association (BDA) and others, dyscalculic children and adults can also present with:

- difficulty counting backwards;
- difficulty remembering basic mathematical facts, even after many hours of practice and/or rote learning;
- difficulty in understanding place value and the role of zero in the Arabic/Hindu number system;
- difficulty ascertaining whether or not answers are right or nearly right;
- slow to perform calculations;
- difficulty imagining a mental number line;
- particular difficulty with subtraction, with addition often as the default operation;
- great anxiety when dealing with mathematics;
- difficulty reading or dyslexia;
- attentional difficulties;
- problems with drawing, visualization and remembering, understanding time and direction;
- poor coordination of movement (dyspraxia).

It’s important to note that reversing numbers is not a symptom of dyscalculia. It is usually a normal developmental stage for children, and no cause for alarm. The same goes for remembering names – no evidence suggests that dyscalculia is related to long-term verbal memory.

## Causes

The prevalent theory is that dyscalculia is a neurological disorder. However, according to New Zealand-based, dyscalculia and mathematical cognition researcher Dr Anna Wilson, research into the neurological causes of dyscalculia is “very much in its infancy.” She states that most dyscalculia research to date has been done in special populations such as people with Turner’s syndrome, fetal alcohol syndrome, or those born with a low birth weight. These children all present with some form of brain damage. Some evidence suggests that dyscalculic children, though not presenting with any other disorder, show the same limited brain activity in the frontal and parietal areas of the brain. These areas are generally associated with mathematical cognition. Wilson argues that both genetic and environmental factors, and an interaction of the two are possible root causes. She says: “The cause for one individual may not be the same as for another, and in many cases it may not be obvious.” More research is clearly needed.

## Prevalence

Research is sketchy at best, but the at the 2010 International Conference on Mathematics Education Research, evidence was presented that proved the prevalence of dyscalculia to be a low 2% of the general population. This is because previous figures generally included “a significant proportion of pupils with what are better called ‘learned difficulties’”, according to the author. Further and updated research is needed.

## Treatment

There is no medical treatment for dyscalculia, nor any one method with proven and 100% efficacy. However, that’s not to say that nothing can be done to help.

Dr Wilson suggests that, ideally, dyscalculic children should receive remedial or specialized assistance as early as possible in their schooling careers. If specialist intervention is impossible, she makes an excellent database of resources available for parents and educators. She goes on to note that good remedial teachers and parents are likely to research, problem-solve, and personalize or individualize assisting methods to help the dyscalculic. She encourages parents and teachers to not stop trying, even in the face of apparent failure.

“The important thing is for neither parents nor children to give up. (The problems) can be overcome, and it is worth it. Do keep evaluating whether you think the current approach is a good one, and don’t hesitate to try a different person or ask for a second opinion,” she urges. As said, there is no sure-fire umbrella treatment available yet.

The BDA also published a list of resources for download. Some of the items are UK-based, but the list of available books on the topic should be helpful across borders.

*Understood*, a US-based organization whose mission it is to help parents with children struggling with learning difficulties, suggests multi-sensory techniques for teaching math, using sight, hearing, touch and movement for easier understanding of what numbers and symbols represent. On their site, they also make recommendations for in-class support by teachers.

Assistive technology [link to the dopa piece] is also popular in schools, with a wide range of options to choose from. *Understood* offers a good list of options for assistance with math, many of them not costly. Teaching applications for devices abound, but the best policy would probably be thorough investigation and caution when acquiring these. Wilson lists the following to look out for when considering an a software application:

- There is no miracle or instant cure for dyscalculia – don’t believe an advertisement that promises such.
- Be suspicious of very high prices. Do not be fooled by the notion that ‘Expensive’ necessarily equals ‘Effective’.
- Be suspicious of ‘special methods’ that appear to have little to do with math. “It is a fundamental psychological principle that the less specific the training is, the less it works”, says Wilson.
- Do research if the advertiser claims that the app is ‘research based’ or ‘proven in research’. If a solid research foundation for these claims is unavailable or cannot be found, don’t buy.
- Be suspicious when a large investment is required without a chance to cancel or pull out of the transaction.

Dyscalculia is a seriously impairing disorder, but it need not be a life sentence for any person. Famous singer Cher suffers from dyscalculia, and look where she landed.